The liver is one of the vital organs of human body. It excretes a product called bile which helps in breaking down and preparing fats for digestion and absorption. The liver uses the blood which passes through it to create nutrients for the body to use. There are a lot more vital functions which liver performs such as:
- Controls the amount of cholesterol.
- Stores energy for body to use along with sugar, minerals vitamins and iron.
- Prevents infections and diseases.
- Maintains the balance of hormones.
- Produces enzymes and other proteins which are responsible for many chemical reactions related to blood such asblood purification, tissue repair and blood clotting.
- Fights against drugs and poisons.
Besides all the functions which the liver performs, the most important one is the ability to regenerate. A healthy liver has the ability to regenerate when damaged.
Most of the liver diseases are caused due to inflammation of the liver which is also known as Hepatitis. If left untreated the hepatitis, the inflamed liver can start to scar which is also known as Fibrosis of the liver. Further untreated, it can lead to Cirrhosis of the liver. The cirrhosis of the liver occurs when the liver becomes unable to regenerate and hardened enough to not function properly. Cirrhosis may lead to liver cancer if not treated further.
Although, hepatitis viruses are the main cause, there are other infections, autoimmune diseases and toxic materials (such as drugs, alcohols etc.) which can also cause hepatitis. Few of the hepatitis viruses which cause hepatitis are hepatitis B, C, D and E. The most common hepatitis viruses which cause the disease are B and C.
Symptoms of Hepatitis B/C
Signs and symptoms of hepatitis usually appear about 2-3 months after you’ve been infected and can range from mild to severe. Signs and symptoms may include:
- Dark urine
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea and vomiting
- Abdominal pain
- Mild fever
- Join pain
- Weakness and fatigue
Signs and symptoms of chronic hepatitis B/C are:
- Itchy skin
- Light coloured faces that may retain pus
- Easy Bleeding
- Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)
Mode of Transmission of Hepatitis:
Common modes of transmission for these viruses include receipt of contaminated blood or blood products, invasive medical procedures using contaminated equipment (Horizontal Transmission), Hepatitis B transmission from mother to baby at birth (Vertical Transmission), with use of infected needles during tattooing, acupuncture, from family member to child, during endoscopy using equipment that has not been properly cleaned between patients and also through sexual contact. In India it is commonly transmitted through vertical and sharp (through needles) routes.
Do’s and Don’ts for Hepatitis B & C patients:
- Take medications regularly as prescribed by the Doctor
- Vaccinate if you are not infected
- Use condom for safe sex
- Drink plenty of water/liquids to avoid dehydration
- Eat balanced food
- Avoid body piercing or tattooing
- Do not donate blood or organs
- Do not share needles or syringes
- Do not share razor blades or tooth-brushes
- Stay away from alcohol
Who is eligible for Liver Transplant?
Anyone who has developed a critical form of liver disease is eligible to undergo liver transplantation. To be more specific, a patient may require a liver transplant in any of the following cases:
- In case of birth defects in liver (in such patients, the bile ducts in the liver are likely to have incomplete openings)
- Persistent liver infection (a condition termed as hepatitis)
- Thrombosis (in which the patient is likely to be identified with hepatic vein clot)
- Liver damage from bad habits such as excessive drinking and smoking
What are the benefits of liver transplantation?
The main aim of a liver transplant is to replace the unhealthy liver with a healthier one, thus leading to the restoration of regular health of the patient. A number of critical liver diseases can be cured by going for liver transplant. It includes infection or damage of liver due to Chronic hepatitis, Hemochromatosis, Sclerosing cholangitis, cirrhosis, Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Biliary atresia, and excessive alcoholism.
How is the procedure done?
One primary condition that is strictly followed in liver transplants is the donor should be a family member of the recipient. The liver transplant procedure at Manipal hospitals starts with a careful evaluation of the donor's liver and his health history. The recipient will also be put through a series of tests to ensure that there is no harm for neither.
During liver transplants, our doctors remove either the left or right lobe of the donor's healthy liver and replace the patient's unhealthy liver. The implanted segment will start regenerating in a few days and the patient will be normal eventually.
The preparation of a patient for liver transplant at Manipal hospitals begins with a careful assessment of the tests undergone by the patient during the initial stages of screening. There is something called the Model for End Stage Liver Disease (in short, called as MELD) score which will be observed. The lesser the MELD score is, the lesser is the criticality of liver transplant. MELD score can range anywhere from 6 to 40.
Pre surgery requirements
Pre-surgery requirements for liver transplant at Manipal hospital involve a detailed medical assessment by our team of doctors. The laboratory assessment includes blood count tests, liver function tests, blood sugar level tests, urine test, and tissue typing.
The patient is required to submit all of the above-mentioned test results and the following as well: chest X-ray, CT scan, MRI, ultrasound with Doppler, hepatic angiogram, total-body bone scan, cholangiogram, Upper endoscopy and lower endoscopy, liver biopsy, and kidney tests. The patient will be taken through an expert counselling session so as to shed his or her fears before heading in to the operation theatre.
Post operation, we transfer the patient to the ICU ward where he or she will be kept under intense care. A heart monitor, oxygen ventilator, tubes & drains and various essential equipment will be used to enable quick recovery of the patient.
We have different packages for different conditions of liver transplant. To get more details on our liver transplant package, you may make an appointment or contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Local Legal Requirements
Please find below the documents that need to be carried by the patient (All in originals) in order to get approvals to go ahead for the transplantation
- Donor Identification letter from the High Court of the country of residence
- Recipient Identification letter from the High Court of the country of residence
- Age declaration of Donor from the High Court of the country of Residence
- Age declaration of Recipient from the High Court of the country of Residence
- Relationship proof of the donor and recipient from the High Court of the country of Residence
- Referral letter from treating hospital of the country of Residence stating that the patient is referred to Manipal Hospital, Bangalore for the renal transplant.
- Consent of Donor regarding no objection of donating the Liver from the High Court of residence
- Family photo preferably with all members of the family (Donor & Recipient has to be present)
- Family Tree document by the issuing authority in the country of residence.
- 30 Passport size photographs of the Donor, Recipient and 2 other family members travelling with them.
- Other documents will be done in Bangalore and will be coordinated by The International Patient Care team at Manipal Hospital, Bangalore.
Liver transplant hospital in Bangalore
"Cheers" is the word that resonates within each one of us whenever there is a celebration! Having a drink in your hand and raising a toast for the occasion makes the moment even more memorable which is then etched in your hearts forever! But things can turn ugly when you go overboard and extend your limits when you shouldn't ideally! When drinking becomes a regular habit it can have serious health implications in your life! The most common issue of excessive drinking is that it directly affects the liver. These kinds of liver disorders are generally called as liver disease.